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            2022年英语专业八级真题听力 Mini-lecture(3)

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            And ethnography, a subfield of cultural anthropology, is, on the whole, the systematic description of human societies, mostly based on gathering the firsthand information about something in a real, natural environment rather than inner place study, such as a laboratory or classroom.

            人种学是文化人类学的一个分支领域,总体来说,是对人类社会的系统性描述,主要基于在某一真实自然环境中收集到的关于某物的第一手信息,而非实验室或教室等室内研究。

            Based on ethnographies, anthropologists can provide explanations of the behavior of different peoples.

            基于人种学,人类学家可以对不同民族的行为作出解释。

            Let me also mention very briefly psychological anthropology, which deals with human personality and feelings.

            我还要简单提一下心理人类学,心理人类学研究人的性格和情感。

            These are greatly influenced by an individual's biological and mental characteristics as well as physical surroundings and personal experiences.

            这在很大程度上受个人的生理和心理特征以及物理环境和个人经历的影响。

            Related subjects are psychology and psychiatry.

            相关学科有心理学和精神病学。

            And it is important to note that there are several universal features common among all societies, for example, the basic similarities in human biology and the existence of two sexes.

            值得注意的是,人类社会具有某些共性,比如,人类生理学的基本相似性和两性的存在

            Another of these universal features is education--either formal or informal, or both.

            还有一个共性是教育——无论是正规还是非正规的,或者两者兼而有之。

            Education is necessary to provide the young with the skills and attitudes needed to carry on as adults.

            教育是必要的,教育为年轻人提供成年后继续生活所需的技能和态度。

            So, you might ask, what are the practical applications for such a broad field of anthropology?

            你可能会问,划分为如此多领域的人类学有哪些实际应用?

            The answer is that anthropology helps us plan the future and helps us contribute to the solution of human problems.

            答案是,人类学可以帮助我们规划未来,解决人类的问题。

            You know the newest area of the study of man is applied anthropology.

            人类研究的最新领域是应用人类学。

            Formerly, anthropology was limited to the academic field, and most anthropologists were teachers or museum curators.

            以前,人类学仅限于学术领域,大多数人类学家是教师或博物馆馆长。

            But for the past several decades, large numbers of "anthro" graduates have been employed in other fields, such as urban planning and administration, health care, and international development.

            但在过去的几十年里,大量的“人类”毕业生在其他领域就业,如城市规划和管理、医疗保健和国际发展。

            This shows that anthropology is not just in academic discipline, it has social and practical applications.

            这表明人类学不仅仅是一门学科,它还具有社会和实际应用。

            Okay, to wrap up, we have briefly talked about the definition, development, and the fields and branches of anthropology.

            好了,总结一下,我们已经简单地谈论了人类学的定义、发展以及人类学的领域和分支。

            I hope after today's lecture, you will understand that anthropology is not a scholarly field only.

            我希望今天的讲座结束后,你们会明白人类学不仅仅是一个学术领域。

            What's more important is that although anthropologists have taken up the task of recording the processes and changes of cultures past and present, they also provide the necessary insights into where the human species is heading.

            更重要的是,虽然人类学家承担了记录过去和现在文化发展过程和变化的任务,但他们也为人类物种的发展方向提供了必要的见解。

            重点单词   查看全部解释    
            urban ['ə:bən]

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            adj. 城市的,都市的

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            informal [in'fɔ:məl]

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            adj. 非正式的,不拘形式的

             
            characteristics [,kærəktə'ristiks]

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            n. 特性,特征;特质;特色(characteristi

             
            understand [.ʌndə'stænd]

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            vt. 理解,懂,听说,获悉,将 ... 理解为,认为<

             
            limited ['limitid]

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            adj. 有限的,被限制的
            动词limit的过

             
            academic [.ækə'demik]

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            adj. 学术的,学院的,理论的
            n.

             
            contribute [kən'tribju:t]

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            vt. 捐助,投稿
            vi. 投稿,贡献,是原因

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            social ['səuʃəl]

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            adj. 社会的,社交的
            n. 社交聚会

             
            environment [in'vaiərənmənt]

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            n. 环境,外界

             
            solution [sə'lu:ʃən]

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            n. 解答,解决办法,溶解,溶液

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